Aristotle: Ancient Greek philosopher thought to have devised the “Square of Opposition” a device whereby logic can be graphed. The device was handed down in the philosophies of many and was generally known by Pre-Socratic Philosophers.

It should be noted that Aristotle’s quote about Pythagoreans reveals a huge amount of information about how Pythagorean science works, in regard to understanding the Monadic sequence, and the view of forms in the Gnostic epistemology, and metaphysics.

“The Pythagoreans too said that the empty exists, and that it enters the heavens from the limitless breath, as though the heavens actually inhale the empty which distinguishes natural things and is sort of a separation and distinction of contiguous things. They hold that this occurs first among numbers ; for the
empty separates their natures. (Aristotle, Physics, 213 b22-27.) (“Early Greek
Philosophy” Penquin Classics, pg. 171.)


Ascetic: One who practices a renunciation, or change of worldly pursuits to achieve spiritual attainment. (See; ”The Birth of Christianity, Crossan, Harper, San Francisco, pg’s, 270, 410-11.)


Asceticism: (Greek, akesis, “practice,” “training,” “excercise.”) The practice of strict self-denial, including refraining from sex, and the consumption of meat and alcohol, or the disciplining of the body or abstaining from worldly pleasure. Gnostic asceticism was justified by the status of the body as the lowest element in a human, composed of matter and created by archons. Hence, the disciplining of the body allowed the Gnostic to be less under the influence of the world of matter. (“A Dictionary of Gnosticism,” Smith, 2009.)

Asclepius: Name of Tractate 8, of Codex VI of the Nag Hammadi Lib., also known as “The Perfect Teachings.” Also name of main character of the text. The text is Hermetic, and related to the “Discourse of the 8th and 9th.” (See also; ”Kybalion,” Three Initiates, Inner Traditions, 2004, List of Hermetic Principles.)

Authades: Authority (heavenly/pleromic) in Pistis Sophia (Askew Codex) who casts emanations in the ‘pleromic’ realm, and has powers over archons, aeons, and other entities including in the Heimarene. Word ‘Authades’ may mean ‘thought.’ (See; Sabaoth.)

Autogenes: “Self Generated,” in reference to the first Aeon or the guiding light. May refer to the growth of a monad into a genus and species type form and structure. (See; Monogene, and Allogene.)

Avatar: A term used in literalist works, meaning a messenger from a divine source who’s purpose it is to exact revenge, or punishment. An avenger. Gnostic demons (messengers) are called forms, and reflect darkness or four levels of agnosia, or aponoia in a person’s mental state. Also a Hindu term referring to an incarnation of a deity. Avatars are not mentioned in Sethian works, (See; ”Seven Forms of Wrath,” ”Gospel of Mary.” See also; Tarturos.


Axionicus: A third century Gnostic of Antioch denounced by Tertullian in his ”Against the Valentinians.” He and another associate Ardesienes are said to have defended the Valentinian traditions, as well as the Gnostic secret teachings about Aeons.