Pythagoras: (582 B.C.- 496 B.C.) Greek mathematician and philosopher, known
best for the Pythagorean Theorem. Known to have had a profound effect on Gnostic
students of philosophy. Specified the monad as the first thing in existence.
Pythagorean theories of the Monad, compared by Fung Yu-Lan author of ”The
History of Chinese Philosophy,” Vol. 2, Princeton, 1953, show the use of the
Pythagorean tetraktys of the decad, and the Tai Chi are similar. The sequence of
the Tai Chi, the Pythagorean tetraktys, and the Sethian Monadology seem to be
based upon the sequence of the creation myth in the Pleroma, and the application
of the sequence to human action in the Logos, or kenoma. (See; Craftsman. See
also; ”The Table of Ten Numbers.)

Redaction: The act of changing a text for a specific purpose. (See; “The Five
Gospels,” pg. 547.)

Resurrection: In Gnostic terms the resurrection takes place in the process of
Gnosis while one is still animate. According to the “Gospel of Phillip,” “It
is fitting that we acquire the resurrection so that when we strip off the

Rhodon: ( circa 180 C.E.) Was supposed by St. Jerome to have been the author of the work against the Cataphrygians, usually ascribed to Asterius Urbanus. Rhodon was a student of Tatian who wrote against the philosophies of Marcion. (New Advent.)

Sabaoth: Earthly form of Yaldaboath, (begetter of the Heavens)… “truth which is the power of Sabaoth the Good which is in thy material body – that is the truth which sprouted from the earth.” ( See; “Pistis Sophia“) Also a form relating to Deity. ”SHBOH, meaning The Seven.” (See; ”The Chaldæan Oracles
of Zoroaster.” Edited and revised by Sapere Aude. [William Wynn Westcott] With an introduction by L. O. [Percy Bullock] [1895]. See also; “Origin of The World,” and ”The Testimony of Truth.”) Mary, the mother, again further interpreteth the same scripture from the meeting of herself with Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptizer, thy mother, and Elizabeth, mother of John, whom I have met. ‘Grace’ then is the power of Sabaōth in me, which went forth out of me, which thou art. Thou hast had mercy on the whole race of men. ‘Truth’ on the other hand is the power in Elizabeth, which is John, who did come and hath made proclamation concerning the way of Truth, which thou art,–who hath made proclamation before thee.”  (”Pistis Sophia,” Chapter 61.)

Sadducees: Jewish aristocracy who aligned themselves with the Roman Empire, and controlled the Jewish Council called the Sanhedrin. High priests of the Jewish Temple were Saducees. There were also Pharisees who were high in temple hierarchy. ( See; ”The Five Gospels,” Jesus Seminar, Harper-Collins, 1997.)

Sacrophilia: Alignment of sensibility (possibly the soul, nous) toward or with the body and spirit. (See; “Birth of Christianity,” Crossan, pg. 37-38.)

Sacrophobia: Opposition of spirit to body. Can include a compendium of human fears of hylic nature that effect the perspective of the body, spirit, and soul. In Gnostic terms the body is what makes the kenomic state impure, as it is seen to pollute the pleromic state which is thought to be pure. (See; ”The Birth of
,” Crossan, Harper, 1998.)

Saklas: Literally means “fool.” It is another name for the Demiurge. In most Gnostic schema those entities that are not in the non-corporeal pleromic state are thought to be in the hylic state, and imperfect. Some are considered incapable of Gnostic transcention, and are doomed. In the ”Gospel of Judas,”
Saklas is considered Satan, or satanic. (See; ”Apocryphon of John,” ”The Apocalypse of Adam,” and ”The Gospel of Judas.”)

Sarkic: “Fleshly” (Greek sarkikos) Same as or similar to “hylic” but may connote the lowest form of Gnostic understanding, animalistic. “The Book of Thomas the Contender” quotes Jesus as saying some men are beasts.

Saturninus: (100-125 A.D.) An Antioch Gnostic philosopher noted for his strong dualism between God and Satan. Thought to have strong feelings toward ascetic views. A student of Simon Magus. (See; Simon Magus, Hoeller p. 78-79.)

Samael: The word “Samael” means “blind god” and is another name for the Demiurge, in some Gnostic schema.

Samaritans: One of the seven Jewish sects mentioned by Hegesippus. According to Jewish traditions, the descendants of those who were resettled in the northern kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians after they had conquered it in 721 B.C. (2 Kings XVII, 9-12) In fact they must have been the result of intermarriage between the Jews who were left behind and the Gentile settlers. At some stage they became a religious sect with a temple on Mt. Gerizim; they accepted the Scripture the Pentateuch (The Torah) alone. ( “The History of the Church,” Eusebius, Williamson, Penguin, 1989, pg. 414.) See; ”Fragments of Heracleon” for mention of Samaritans, and explanations from the ”Gospel of John”.

Septuagent: The Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, containing the Deuteroconon, which are books not used in the later Vulgate. ”Biblia Polyglotta Complutinus,” appeared around 1514. The ”Vulgate,” is the Latin version of the Bible. (See; ”Smith’s Bible Dictionary, Smith, Thomas nelson, 1986. See
also; Torah.)

Seth: ”From Adam three natures were begotten. The first was the irrational, which was Cain’s, the second the rational and just, which was Abel’s, the third the spiritual, which was Seth’s. Now that which is earthly is “according to the image,” that which is psychical according to the ” likeness ” of God, and that
which is spiritual is according to the real nature; and with refer­ence to these three, without the other children of Adam, it was said, “This is the book of the generation of men.” And because Seth was spiritual he neither tends flocks nor tills the soil but produces a child, as spiritual things do. And him, who “hoped
to call upon the name of the Lord” who looked upward and whose “citizenship is in heaven – him the world does not contain.” (Theodotus, Criddle Collection.)

Sethian: It is a name for a specific sect of Gnostics, but also a category created by scholars to refer to a number of sects that are related to Valentinians. The Sethians as a group were known to Hippolytus who dedicated Book Five in his work, ”The Refutation of All Hereseys,” to denouncing them. (See Gaffney) Seth was a character of Gnosticism who represented a savior figure and third son of Adam, founder of the Gnostic race. Generally Sethian works include, “Pistis Sophia,” “Allogenes,” ”The Gospel of Mary,*” “Sentences of Sextus,” “Marsanes,” “Gospel of The Egyptians,*” ”The Apocalypse of Adam,*”
“Origin of The World,” ”The Gospel of Thomas,*” ”The Gospel of Philip,” “The Three Steles of Seth,” “Melchizidek,” ”The Apocryphon of John,” ”The Gospel of Judas,” Trimorphic Protennoia,” the un-named text in the Bruce Codex, and ”Zostrianos.” (Others) Some Sethian works suggest strong ties with
Jewish Gnosticism, as well as Platonic thought, as well as Zoroasterism. (They maintained three principles; darkness below, light above, and spirit in-between, according to work attributed to Dr. Roy Blizzard, University of Texas. See also; ”Sethian Gnosticism, A Literary History,” Turner) see also; ( * Indicates works from the Nag Hammadi Lib., with other works by the same name.)

Sethian Monadology: The system of the monad, constructed through the tetraktys
of the decad, which serves as an underlying philosophy in Sethian Gnosticism. It
is developed from the creation myths. The system is like, and based upon that
of Pythagoreans, and resembles the principles of the ancient Chinese philosophy
of the Tai Chi., which is based upon the ogdoad. The system is based upon
working variations of numerical values. Turner states, ”….vigorous
arithmological speculation on the first ten numbers, but especially the first
four numbers, comprising the Pythagorean tetraktys (the {mode} of the first four
numbers). This was carried on by such Pythagoreanizing Platonists as Theon of
Smyrna and Nicomachus of Gerasa, who in turn depend in part on similar
arithmological and mathematical theories produced by such early first century
Platonist figures as Dercyllides, Adrastos of Aphrodisias (a Peripatetic
commentator on Plato’s Timaeus) and Thrasyllos, a court philosopher under the
Emperor Tiberius. The harmonic ratios produced by these first four numbers and
the geometric entities of point, line, surface, and solid had been applied to
the structure and the creation of the world soul long before by Plato and his
successors in the Old Academy, especially Speusippus and Xenocrates. (See;
Turner, See also; ”The History of Chinese Philosophy, Vol. 2.,” by Fung
Yu-Lan, Princeton, 1953, See also; ”A Valentinian Exposition.”)