A.   As  the  first  sound  in  most  alphabets  (see  Alphabets)  stands
commonly for the first of all existences, the Mahā-deva (“ Great God ”)
or Supreme.   It represents the agent of creation, even when typified
by the bull  (Akkadian
ā or āu).   It is shrouded in the complicated
Sanskrit  A  (or  Akara)  called  “ the  Supreme ”—Vishnu  or  Krishna.
Christ, like Krishna (the Indian Apollo), is the Alpha (A, or “ bull ”),
as well as the Omega—the “ beginning and the end.”   The sound Aa
signified “ God.”   It conveyed the meanings of uprightness, physically
and ethically, and hence of righteousness (see Proc. Bib. Arch. Soc.,
November  1885, p.  28).    In Egypt and among Akkadians,
aa or ai
was also the moon  (Turkish ai); and a again was  “ water ” among
Akkadians and Kelts.   The Egyptian Ra (the sun) was Aa—the high
or  sky  god ;  and  phallic  Khonsu  was  also  called  Aah-from
 aa  “ to
beget,” and Aah is the “ moon.”

Islāmis head all documents with their club-headed Aleph  (for the name of God) ; and it consecrates these, and wards off the evil eye, bringing a blessing on the writing, the writer, and the subject.   So the Hindu applies his Aum or Om  (see Om), as the Hebrew ends with his Amen (see Amen).   These questions are fully treated in our Rivers of Life (ii, p. 534).

The Akkadian moon, Aa, was “ the bright one ” (with a watery
connection), and was of dual sex.   Early moon-gods were male, but
Aa was early the supreme godess of Akkadians, wife of the sun-god
of Sippara, and presiding there, and in Eridu, over the temple of her
son (Tammuz), whose Eden lay near.   She was thus both mother and
wife of the sun, and “ lady of Eden ” (Sayce,
Hibbert Lect. 1887).

In Akkadian (and Turkish) a also means “ chief ” or “ father ” ; and Aa, says Dr Sayce, was originally a male deity “ representing the solar disk.”

Aalu.   Aaru.   Egyptian. Heaven, Paradise, the land of Eternity, a
tower or field of peace, and of the water of life : the fulness of bliss,



where all live and speak with Osiris :  “ Where are no temptations ;
where,  as  by  fire,  all  have  been  purified,  entering  Aukar  through
Amenti (Hades) to be absorbed in Osiris,” dwelling for ever with him
in Ker-neter (“ the good place ”), after passing through its adjoining
Purgatory (Rusta) : where Osiris also rules as Rhot-Amenti.   Aaru is
also  identified  with  Hotep,  the  place  of  peace  and  rest-the  Indian

A-ami.    Egyptian.    The  ape-symbol  of  Thoth,  the  wise  judge, and god of the obelisk.

Aaron.  Hebrew  Aharūn.  The  brother  of  Moses,  and  first  high
priest.   The name seems posssibly connected with his special charge of
the  Ark (Ārūn),  A-harun  presenting  a  prosthetik  a.     In  Arabic
Mt. Hor  (near Petra), where he died, is still called
Jebel Harūn, or
“Aaron’s Mountain.”   He is called a son of Amram (“ high people ”),
and his mother is named Yūkabad (Jochebed), meaning “ Yahveh has
been  honoured.”    He  followed  and  tended  the  ark-box  (see  Ark).
He was a bull, or sun, worshipper, who could work wonders, and made
a golden calf which “ came out ” of the fire; so that this Hebrew (solar
and lunar) legend of Moses and Aaron seems analogous to that of
Krishna  and  his  charioteer  Aruna,  “ the  tawny  one”  in  India.    At
Rephidīm  Aaron  poses  (see
 Rivers  of  Life,  i,  p.  154,  fig.  57)  with
his horned brother, and Hur  (Khūr), in a remarkable group on the
mount, viewing the fight between his tribe and Amalek.   Moses forms
the central standard, raising his wonder-working Hermaik rod ; and
Aaron  and  Hur  support  him  till  sundown,  when  the  Hebrews  are
victorious,  and  their  priests  erect  a  monument  to  their  solar  god

Aaru.   See Aalu.

Ab.   This  word,  in  many  languages,  denotes “ father ”    (as  in

Akkadian,  Turkish,  Hebrew,  etc.)  like  the  Latin  avus.     With
Akkadians also ab was “ moving water ” (compare A) like the Turkish
ab  “ wave,” and the Aryan ap  “ water.”    The Babylonian month Ab
was  called  in  Akkadian  Nene-gar  (“ fire  making ”),  sacred  to  “ the
queen  of  the  spear ” (see  Quirinus).  This  was  August,  but  the

Akkadian  January  was  called  Abba-uddu         (“ rising  flood ”).  Ab

“ father,” and Ma  “ mother,” are reversed in many dialects; and Ab
becomes the Aryan Pa and Pa-pa, while Ma becomes Am, and Um,
and  Ma-ma,  “ the  great  nurse.”    Ab,  as  the  father,  is  the  type  of
“ fertility ”  and  of “ fruit ” (Hebrew  Ēb :  see  Job  viii,  12 ;  Dan  iv,

12, etc) ; but the root abah signifies “ desire.”