Fasting: ”Fasting according to the signification of the word, is abstinence from food. Now food makes us neither more righteous nor less. But mystically it shows that, as life is maintained in individuals by sustenance, and want of sustenance is the token of death; so also ought we to fast from worldly things,
that we may die to the world, and after that, by partaking of divine sustenance, live to God. Especially does fasting empty the soul of matter, and make it, along with the body, pure and light for the divine words. Worldly food is, then, the former life and sins; but the divine food is faith, hope, love, patience,
knowledge, peace, temperance. For “blessed are they that hunger and thirst after” God’s “righteousness; for they shall be filled.” The soul, but not the body, it is which is susceptible of this craving.” (Theodotus/Kirby Collection.)


Garment: Meaning clothing, but in Gnostic terms can mean the flesh covering the body. Sometimes used in various references to wearing the soul or the idea of social position as a philosophical covering. From the Un-named text in the Bruce Codex: “This is Man, begotten of mind (nous) ‘, to whom thought gave form. It is thou who hast given all things to Man. And he has worn them like garment.” (See
also; Cebes)

Gehenna: Meaning hell, hades, sheol, in Gnostic terms hell is, the darkness, desire, and ignorance of Agnosia. In the ”Gospel of Judas,” Satan is Saklas, meaning foolishness. (See Tartaros, See also the ”Gospel of Mary” for the ‘forms of wrath;’ See also; ”The Five Gospels,” p. 544.)

Gematria: The study or science and art of number and letter manipulation. This would include geometric forms such as the Tetraktys of the Decad. ”I {Jesus} have turned their (periods of) influence and their quadrangles and their triangles and their figures of eight , since their (periods of) influence remained turned to the left from the beginning, together with their quadrangles and their triangles and their figures of eight.” (”Pistis Sophia,” See also; Tetraktys of the Decad.” See also; ”Marsenes.” )

Jewish Perspective:

Gematria is one of a number of methods which Kabbalists, and others I might add, employ to uncover “hidden meanings” in Hebrew words and expressions. Simply Gematria is the art of calculating the numerical value of a word by adding together the value of each letter. Once the numerical value of the word is known, words or combinations of words having the same value can be carefully scrutinized and compared. In this manner one number can become representative of several ideas, all of which are understood to be intrinsically related.

A famous example often quoted by commentators and authors addressing this specific topic is Genesis 49:10 which reads “The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh, and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.” By Gematria the words “until Shiloh” – y’voh Shiloh (Yod [10] + Bet [2] + Alef [1] + Shin [300] + Yod [10] + Lamed [30] + Heh [5] = 358), align with the Hebrew word for Messiah – Mashiach (Mem [40] + Shin [300] + Yod [10] + Chet [8] = 358]). Hence, according to Kabbalah, there is a direct connection between the terms “until Shiloh” and “Messiah.” Associated here is the Gematria of Numbers 21:9 which reads “And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the Serpent of brass, he lived.” The serpent of brass is called Nachash (Nun [50] + Chet [8] + Shin [300] = 358). So there is a connection between “Messiah,” “until Shiloh,” and the “Serpent of brass.” Using this set of Gematria associations, Christian Kabbalists later assumed that the brazen serpent raised by Moses in the desert was a prefiguration of the Christian Saviour on the Cross. There are however other meanings such as the Nachash.

Using Gematria, Kabbalists arrive at many remarkable Holy Names or the names of Angels, revealing the mysteries of the world of the Merkavah (the fiery Chariot Throne and the Angels). An example is that the Gematria of the entire verse of Song of Songs 6:16: “I have gone down into the nut garden,” is equivalent to a verse in the Midrash (a Sacred Biblical Commentary) which reads “That is the depth of the chariot (Merkavah).”

There is really no limit to what can be yielded by employing this simple Gematria method explained above, but over the years the application of this system became more and more complex, and many more ways of practising this art were devised. I certainly cannot go into all of them in this short missive, but I should mention that there are two schools of thought in Kabbalah regarding the use of Gematria. One favours it, the other uses it very rarely, however both of them used it, hence Gematria is a key system in the “Letter-number Mysticism” of Kabbalah.

As said, Gematria became more and more complicated over the centuries. However, generally the most important types of Gematriot are:

1. The numerical value of one wore is equal to another word. This is the method explained above. Another example is the word Gevurah [Severity] (Gimel [3] + Bet [2] + Vav [6] + Resh [200] + Heh [5] = 216). The Gematria of this word is equal to the word Aryeh [Lion] (Alef [1] + Resh [200] + Yod [10] + Heh [5] = 216). A connection is therefore recognized between the ideas of “Severity” and “Lion” in Hebrew.

2. The reduction of numbers to single units. For example the value of Shin (300) is reduced to 3 or Kaf (20) to 2.

3. The squared number is calculated by squaring the numerical values of each letter in a word. for example the Tetragrammaton YHVH squared equals (Yod) 102 ( Heh) 52 (Vav) 62 (Heh ) 52 which equals 186. This is in turn equated with the word Makom [Place] (Mem [40] + Kof [100] + Vav [6] + Mem [40] = 186). Makom is also a Divine Name.

4. Adding up the value of all letters preceding a letter in an alphabetical numerical series. For example, the letter Dalet is the fourth letter of the Hebrew letter-numbers (alphabet), and the use of this type of Gematria in this case, requires one to add the values of the letters preceding Dalet, thus 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.

5. Then there is the method of Gematria termed Millui meaning “filling” or “spellings.” In this method the values of the letters comprising the names of the individual letters are calculated. In Hebrew each letter is a word, and is spelled as follows:

Alef AlefLamed Peh [Feh]
Bet
BetYod Tav
Gimel
GimelMem Lamed)
Dalet
DaletLamed Tav

Heh can be spelled:
HehAlef
Heh
Heh
Heh
Yod

Vav can be spelled:
Vav-Alef-Vav
Vav-Yod-Vav
Vav-Vav

ZayinZayin-Yod-Nun
Chet
Chet-Yod-Tav
Tet
Tet-Yod-Tav
Yod
Yod-Vav-Dalet
Kaf
Kaf-Feh
Lamed
Lamed-Mem-Dalet
Mem
Mem-Mem
Nun
Nun-Vav-Nun
Samech
Samech-Mem-Kaf [ Chaf]
AyinAyin-Yod-Nun
PehPeh-Heh
Tzadi
Tzadi-Dalet-Yod
Kof
Kof-Vav-Peh [ Feh]
ReshResh-Yod-Shin
ShinShin-Yod-Nun
TavTav-Vav

Using this type of Gematria the value of Alef (Alef [1] + Lamed [30] + Feh [80]) = 111; Bet (Bet [2] + Yod [10] + Tav [400]) = 412, etcetera. These Millui or fillings are very important in the construction and permutation of Divine Names. Take for example the earlier mentioned YHVH, in which the letter-numbers Heh and Vav have different fillings, that is different spellings. As indicated already, the letter Heh can be spelled Heh-Alef, Heh-Heh or Heh-Yod, and Vav can be spelled Vav-Alef-Vav, Vav-Yod-Vav or Vav-Vav. So with these letters one can use three different kinds of fillings, traditionally called:

Millui de-Alfin (Alef filling);
Millui de-He’in (Heh filling); and
Millui de-Yodin (Yod filling).

Applying these to the Ineffable Name, YHVH, the Sacred Tetragrammaton can be varied accordingly to give the so-called “Forty-Five Letter Name of God,” “Fifty-Two Letter Name of God,” “Sixty-Three Letter Name of God,” and “Seventy-Two Letter Name of God.” In fact each of these names correspond to one of the Four Worlds of Kabbalah, respectively the worlds of Assiah, Yetzirah, Briah and Atzilut. This is done in the following manner:

Yod-Vav-Dalet Heh-heh Vav-vav Heh-heh comprises the “Fifty-Two Letter Name of God,” and in Gematria the word Ben (Bet [2] + Nun [50] = 52). The word Ben (son) is thus representative of the “Fifty-Two Letter Name of God.”
Yod-Vav-Dalet Heh-Alef Vav-Alef-Vav Heh-Alef comprises the “Forty-Five Letter Name of God,” which corresponds in Gematria to the word Adam (Alef [1] + Dalet [4] + Mem [40] = 45). The word Adam (man) therefore symbolizes the “Forty-Five Letter Name of God.”
Yod-Vav-Dalet Heh-Yod Vav-Alef-Vav Heh-Yod comprises the “Sixty-Three Letter Name of God.”
Yod-Vav-Dalet Heh-Yod Vav-Yod-Vav Heh-Yod comprises the “Seventy-Two Letter Name of God,” which according to some is related to what is called the “Name of Seventy-Two Names.”

Of course I have barely touched on this topic, and there are still a few Gematria techniques which I have not listed at all. This is purely because I am address more extensive details in this short message, but I hope I have been able to shed some light on this intriguing topic.

Glaucius: Glaucius and Mark, if by only legend where employed in recording the records of Peter, in Alexandria, around 44 C. E. (See; Works of Henry Barchlay Swete, 1835-1917.)

Gnosis: While the literal translation for this word is “knowledge”, it’s meaning is closer to “insight” or, to use another concept, “enlightenment.” It may imply more in some cases than a purely intellectual understanding. It may imply complete comprehension that comes from both rational and intuited means. Gnosis is bonding the soul (nous) with wisdom, in both Sethian,Valentinian, and other Gnostic schema, which link this act through Jesus. The process of Gnosis may have different schema, or criteria as to secular practices. The process of Gnosis seems to be transitional or a transcendence in a learned process.

Gnostic: A person regarded as a student of Gnosis. Can refer to specific sects mentioned by historians, and heresiologists, The term can be used as a category for a number of sects and individuals that believed “Gnosis” had a salvational purpose. Gnostic sects are known to have existed in pre-Christian Jewish
communities and later in Christian movements, according to information in the “Nag Hammadi” text by Robinson. Gnostic views differ, as do secular characters of the Pleroma in the creation myths. The term or versions of it, are used very early in regard to Christian learning, this quote from Book 3 of Clement of
Alexandria’s “Stromata.” “Joannis autem vitae institutum gnosticum quis imitabitur?”

Gnosticism: The word was adapted by modern scholars to refer to the sects of the ‘Late Antiquities’ that shared a similar cosmology and soteriology. More recently the definition has been widened in some circles to mean any form of mysticism or esotericism. Gnostic scenarios both differ, and are alike in the
cosmic reasoning for the creation, making them ‘creation myths.’ Gnostic texts use different names for the characters of the creation stories for characters from the Palermo. Gnostics all believe that man, through learning the perspectives of his psyche, earthly, and pleromic self can attain life after death in a corporeal state by bonding with the higher entities. The ‘Light,’ ‘ Sophia,’ (Wisdom). (See also; ”The Five Gospels,” by Funk, Hoover, Harpper-Collins, 1993, p. 544.)

Gospel: Means ‘good news.’ Gospels were used to relate evangelistic teachings. Gnostic writings appear to have been based upon all existing Gospels attributed to Apostles. Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, as well as Pauline letters are mentioned in some Gnostic texts. The ”Gospel of Thomas” appears
to be a main source of Bible Gospel, and Jesus reference in the Nag Hammadi collection, as well as other Gnostic works. The ”Gospel of Mary,” and the ”Gospel of Phillip” are in the Nag Hammadi Lib. The ”Gospel of Phillip”contains some New Testament references. , Jn 6:53, 8-32, 8-34, Mt. 3-10, 3-15,
15-13, 16-17, Paul, 1 Co 8-1, 1 P 4-8. See also ”The Gospel of Judas,” and ”The Gospel of Truth, and Gospel of the Egyptians.”

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