Mandaeanism: Pre-Christian, or first century Persian Gnostic (dualism) religion of the middle east that has survived into modern times. ‘Manda’ is from the Aramaic language which translates to ‘gnosis’ in Greek. They professed a kinshipto the teachings of “John the Baptist,” and are said to exist today in Iraq. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandaeanism http://essenes.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=762&Itemid=1172
Mani: (216- 276 CE) founder of the religion of Manicheanism. Believed to have written or had part in the “Manichean Psalms of Thomas.” See also; Manichaeaens http://essenes.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=280&Itemid=712
THE ENLIGHTENED MASTER MAR MANI, peace be upon him, entered the world on the 8th day of the 1st Babylonian month of Nissanu (April 14) 216 A.D.. He was born in Mardin, Iraq and raised in an Elkasite monastery on a floating reed island in the mashlands of near Basra, Iraq. Mani claimed to be the restorer and synthesizer of Gnostic Nazorean Christianity, Zurvan Zoroasterism, and Mahayana Buddhism. He created a worldwide vegan church which lasted over a thousand years. At one point Manichaeism was as big, or bigger, than the Catholic Church and its teachings have significantly influenced Bon, Buddhist, Sufi, Shia Islam, and Taoist traditions.
Mani’s mystical teachings have profoundly enriched the Nazorean Way. His name means the “Vessel of Life” and he came to be regarded by his Christian disciples as the Paraclete, by his Persian followers as the Zoroastrian redeemer Saoshyant, and by his Buddhist adherents as the Avatar Maitreya. He was also known as a reincarnation of both Lao Tzu and Buddha. He was a gifted writer, teacher, artist, physician, astrologer, musician and a miracle-worker. He personally illuminated and illustrated many of his original scriptures, and could draw a fine line on silk and then erase it by removing one thin thread.
Manichoi: Meaning one who has become a solitary one, or unified. (Hoeller p.
Marcellina: (330-398 A.D.) The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan. She was older than St. Ambrose, and was born most probably at Trier, where her father resided as “Praefectus Praetorio Galliarum.” Mentioned to have led a Gnostic sect founded by Heracleon.
Marcion: (85-160 CE) Marcion was son of the Bishop of Sinope in Pontus, Asia Minor. He organized a series of Gnostic congregations in the eastern Mediterranean which survived into the 3rd century CE. He wrote a book called “Antitheses” which earned him excommunication by the Christian leaders of Rome.
He wrote the “Gospel of Marcion,” and rejected Jewish influence in Christianity. He rejected the institution of marriage. He believed that the Demiurge arranged Jesus’ persecution and crucifixion. But the death of Christ on the cross was only a hallucination, since Jesus did not have a physical body.
Marcionites: Followers of Marcion who formed a sect around 144 A.D. They rejected the idea of the Jewish God, and declared that Jesus was not the son of the Jewish creator. Considered by some to be Gnostic like in their understanding of dualism.
Marsenes: Name of Tractate 1, Codex X, Nag Hammadi Lib. A Sethian writing also found in the Bruce Codex, also name of main character of the work, a Gnostic Prophet.
Matthias: According to Clement of Alexandria, teachings of Matthias were used by Basilideans and perhaps other Gnostic groups. According to Hippolytus, Basilides and his son Isidore claimed to have learned from Matthias ‘secret words,’ which he had received in private teaching from the Saviour. A disciple called Mathias replaced Judas Iscariot in apostolic succession after the crucifixion of Jesus.
(May be the author who wrote the text, “The Book of Thomas the Contender.”)
Meditation: The act of concentrating the mind for a specific purpose, or
response. The act is different than contemplation in some contexts, in others it
may mean the same. Sethian Gnostics rejected prayer as to an eminent power.
They did use ”contemplation,” or what we might call self-hypnosis today, which
was aided by the use knowledge of the monad. (See Sethian Monadology)